We identified 128 new studies, of which 81 met our inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven studies were excluded for one of the following reasons: they were not RCTs (11 studies), they were not specific for hip fractures (5), they were primary prevention studies (6), and they were published in a language other than English or did not meet our other inclusion criteria (5). Twenty studies were not re-reviewed, as they were included in Cochrane Collaboration reviews at the time of searching.

Sixteen Cochrane Collaboration reviews and 65 additional relevant articles published from October 2001 to June 2008 were identified. No new RCTs or meta-analyses were found relating to the following interventions: preoperative traction, prevention of pressure sores, oxygen therapy, pressure-gradient stockings, surgical wound drains, postoperative blood transfusion, surgical swabs and urinary catheterisation.

Four new issues in hip fracture management — surgical wound closure, reducing postoperative delirium, osteoporosis treatment and hip protectors — were included in our review, because they are pertinent management issues that have not been included in previous reviews or because studies addressing these issues are now available.

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